Community Establishment & Nexus

Establishment

DotMusic’s definition of the “Music Community” as a “strictly delineated and organized community of individuals, organizations and business, a logical alliance of communities of similar nature that relate to music”(See Application, 20a) is factually accurate and representative of the “Music Community.” Community characteristics include:

 

i) An Organized, Cohesive, Interdependent Logically-Allied Community:

The “Music Community” definition covers the regulated, interdependent and cohesive nature of the music sector that exists today. “Music Community” members have the requisite awareness and recognition of the interdependent, overlapping and cohesive nature of each “organized community of similar nature that relates to music” that comprises the “Music Community.” Without such cohesiveness and interdependency, the defined “Music” Community matching the applied-for string (“Music”) would not be able to function in its regulated sector, a “Music” regulated sector that was publicly recognized by both ICANN and the Government Advisory Committee.[1]

As a result, the Music Community as defined is “closely united” (As per the definition of “cohesion” according to Merriam-Webster dictionary[2]) or “united or form a whole” (As per the definition of the word “cohesion” according to Oxford Dictionaries[3]).

The “Music Community” as defined (a “strictly delineated and organized community of individuals, organizations and business, a logical alliance of communities of similar nature that relate to music”) establishes that:

(1) There is an awareness and recognition among its members;

(2) The organized and delineated logical alliance of communities exists; and

(3) The Community is “closely united” and “interdependent” (i.e. Each “organized community of similar nature that relates to music” which is part of the “logical alliance of communities that relate to music” is not mutually exclusive).

In short, the applied-for string (“Music”) matches the name of the “Music” Community as defined by DotMusic’s application. DotMusic’s “Music Community” definition accurately represents the common definition of the “Music Community,” which is confirmed by Wikipedia.

According to Wikipedia:[4]

Music community is defined as a logical alliance of interdependent communities that are related to music, which include commercial participants…and non-commercial participants…and consists of an “ensemble of practices and institutions that make possible and regulate the production, distribution and consumption of music”…UNESCO identifies the music community as a “community of identity” implying common identifiable characteristics and cohesive attributes such as sharing a music culture, norms and subscribing to common ideals related to music…The music community is not defined as much by demographic indicators such as race, gender, and income level, as it is by common values, cohesive norms and interconnected structures to build a community identity. It refers to music-related individuals and organisations in a shared environment with shared understandings and practices, modes of production and distribution. The shared organisation of collective musical activities, identity and community value is created as result of infrastructure and a shared set of common values…Many studies outline the historical, cultural, and spatial significance of the music community, including how its identity is formed through musical practices. The music community shares a cohesive and interconnected structure of artistic expression, with diverse subcultures and socio-economic interactions…subscribing to common ideals. Under such structured context music consumption becomes possible regardless whether the transaction is commercial and non-commercial.[5]

 

ii) An Aware, Pre-Existing and Recognized Community of Considerable Millions Worldwide:

DotMusic’s definition of the Community covers all Community members associated with the string, each with a requisite awareness of the Community that can be validated through their natural association with a particular music-related community that they clearly identify with. According to DotMusic, all Music Community members must identify their music-related community in order to demonstrate their requisite awareness of the defined Community as part of the .MUSIC registration and validation process.

According to DotMusic, the Music Community’s geographic breadth is inclusive of all recognized territories covering regions associated with ISO-3166 codes and 193 United Nations countries with a Community of considerable size with millions of constituents (Application Answer to Question 20a).

According to DotMusic, “registrants will be verified using Community-organized, unified “criteria taken from holistic perspective with due regard of Community particularities” that “invoke a formal membership (Application Answer to Question 20a).”The defined Community represents all music-related entities with a clear and straightforward membership with the Community involved in the legal production, performance, promotion, and distribution of music worldwide. According to DotMusic, the Music Community members must have an active, non-tangential relationship with the applied-for string “music” and also have the requisite awareness of the music-related community that they are a part of by specifically identifying it as part of the registration and validation process (i.e. upon successful registration and validation, each community member will be given a unique community identification number that will automatically associate them with their identified community and the “music” string).

DotMusic’s Community definition matches the applied-for string because it allows both commercial and non-commercial stakeholders to register a .MUSIC domain without any conflicts of interests, over-reaching or discrimination/exclusion. Given the regulated sector of the community, it is clear that the “Music Community” as defined implies “more of cohesion than a mere commonality of interest” with an “awareness and recognition of a community among its members.” Several international treaties mandate cohesive and globally-recognized set of standards for the protection of the music community members’ rights with relation to their copyrighted music works around the world.[6]

The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works[7] provides that each of the 168 contracting parties[8] (representing an overwhelming majority of the world’s population) provides automatic protection for music works first published in other countries of the Berne union and for unpublished music works whose authors are citizens of or resident in such other countries.[9] This means that if a Music Community member’s copyright rights are violated in any other signatory country’s jurisdiction, then the music community member will have the music copyright rights given by that country. Music Community members are clearly aware of the collective Community’s rights, which could not be made possible without these cohesive and globally-recognized set of standards. If such standards were not coherent or enforced then music would not be able to exist in its current form and the industry component of the Music Community sector would not exist. As such, the Community’s Establishment and definition is “cohesive” and hence cannot be construed since the Community is a logical alliance of music communities that establish a clearly delineated and organized Community structure that is “closely united” and functions as a “whole”

Further evidence to substantiate the cohesive, symbiotic and overlapping nature of the Community, includes other globally-recognized standards and classification systems, which identify who the individual songwriters, publishers and rights holders are and which songs they are associated with so that Community members are appropriately compensated, regardless of whether the constituent is a commercial, non-commercial or amateur entity. The “music” string is commonly used in classification systems such as ISMN,[10] ISRC,[11] ISWC,[12] ISNI.[13](Application Answer to Question 20a). For example, if a music entity would like to distribute their music, either commercially or for free, then an ISRC can be assigned to globally identify any specific music work. An ISRC, which facilitates efficient music discovery and community member payment, is constructed from 12 characters representing country, registrant, year of registration and designation (i.e. the serial number assigned by the registrant). With respect to domains, an equivalent system that relates to identifying a specific domain’s registrant and other relevant information pertaining to the domain is WHOIS. Domain registrants are required by ICANN “to provide accurate WHOIS contact data” or else their domain “registration may be suspended or even cancelled”.[14]

Without such Music Community “cohesion” and standardized systems functioning in its regulated sector, the Music Community would not be able to create, market and distribute their music. By the same token, fans would not be able to identify the music they are listening to with a specific music artist, regardless of whether the listening activity or behavior is commercial or non-commercial in nature. The socio-economic structure that characterizes “music” as commonly-known today would be non-existent without these organized and delineated elements that commonly define the Community.

 

iii) International Federations and Organizations Dedicated to Community Functions:

According to ICANN’s Applicant Guidebook (“AGB”)[15]: “With respect to “Delineation” and “Extension,” it should be noted that a community can consist of…a logical alliance of communities (for example, an international federation of national communities of a similar nature… viable as such, provided the requisite awareness and recognition of the community is at hand among the members.” (AGB, 4-12). The community as defined in the DotMusic application has at least one entity mainly dedicated to the community which has supported DotMusic, which include several “international federation of national communities of a similar nature” relating to music, music coalitions and other relevant and non-negligible music organizations.

One of these entities include the only international federation of national communities relating to government culture agencies and arts councils, which has an integral association with music globally: the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA).

IFACCA is the only international federation that represents government culture agencies and arts councils globally. These national communities are governmental institutions that play a pivotal role with respect to music.[16] IFACCA’s members cover the majority of music entities globally, regardless of whether they are commercial, non-commercial or amateurs. Government ministry of culture and council agencies related to music cover a majority of the overall community with respect to headcount and geographic reach. The “Size” covered reaches over a hundred million music entities i.e. “considerable size with millions of constituents” per Application Answer to Question 20a.

The string “music” falls under the jurisdiction of each country’s Ministry of Culture governmental agency or arts/music council (emphasis added). The degree of power and influence of government ministry of culture and council agencies with respect to music surpasses any organization type since these agencies (i) provide the majority of funding for music-related activities; (ii) regulate copyright law; and (iii) encompass all the music entities that fall under their country, regardless whether these entities are commercial, non-commercial or amateurs. IFACCA is globally recognized by its strategic partners, such as UNESCO, a United Nations agency representing 195 member states and the European Commission.[17] The UNESCO strategic partnership[18] is relevant, especially since UNESCO founded the International Music Council (the “IMC”) in 1949, which represents over 200 million music constituents from over 150 countries and over 1000 organizations globally.[19]

Government activities in the clearly delineated and organized “Music Community” include setting statutory royalty rates. For example, in the United States, mechanical royalties are based on a “statutory rate” set by the U.S. Congress. This rate is increased to follow changes in the economy, usually based on the Consumer Price Index. Currently, the mechanical statutory rate is $0.091 for songs five minutes or less in length or $.0175 per minute for songs that are over five minutes long.[20]

Ministries of culture and arts councils (that comprise IFACCA’s membership) support musicians, musical performances, independent music artists, non-commercial musical expression and education in their respective countries. The 165 ministries of culture, arts councils and affiliates that comprise IFACCA’s membership support the “performing arts” and music specifically. Without the financial and logistical support of arts councils and the ministries of culture, the music community would be adversely affected, and in some countries, may not exist in any appreciable manner. For example, the Ministry of Culture 2011 budget for the small country state of Cyprus for culture funding was €34,876,522 with critical support of music activities.[21] Other small government Ministries of Culture, such as Albania,[22] or government Ministries of Culture and Arts Councils from countries with larger populations, such as India,[23] all provide critical support and substantial advocacy for music. Other examples include government institutions collaborating and advocating music through their funded country-based pavilion initiatives at Midem, the world’s largest music conference.[24]

Government ministries and arts councils provide critical support for the Music Community, including commercial music organizations By way of example, government ministries’ and arts councils’ substantial connection to and support of “music” is noted in the reports of funding and support for music. Some examples to showcase the degree of power of the IFACCA’s membership towards the string and global and national music are music investment and music funding (Annual reports by governments and councils):

  • New Zealand Ministry of Culture has funded significant music projects. Some include the REAL New Zealand Music Tour ($415,000), the New Zealand String Quartet ($150,000) and New Zealand Music Commission: ($1,378,000).[25]
  • The Australian Government/Council For The Arts invested $51.2 million for the nation’s orchestras; $21.6 million for opera; $10.8 million for other music artists and organizations; $13.1 million for multi-platform artists and organizations; and $4 million in miscellaneous funding, including sector building and audience development initiatives and programs.[26]
  • Canada Council for the Arts is Canada’s national, arts funding agency investing $28 million in its Canada Council Musical Instrument Bank (Page 16) and $28,156,000 in Music Arts Programs (Page 66).[27] The Government of Canada also renewed its annual investment of $27.6 million over five years in the Canada Music Fund.[28]
  • The United Kingdom Department for Culture and Education (DfE) will fund music education at significant levels: £77 million, £65 million and £60 million will be available in the three years from April 2012.[29]
  • The United States National Endowment of the Arts has awarded more than $4 billion to support the arts since its inception[30] and has a strong focus on music as outlined in its Strategic Plan[31]with Congress requested to provide $154,465,000 for fiscal year 2014.[32]
  • The National Arts Council of South Africa invested 2,536,131 ZAR in Music and 9,995,000 ZAR in Orchestras and has focused strongly on the “Strengthening of live indigenous music and advocating the revival of the live music circuit in South Africa”[33]
  • The Singapore Arts Council will fund $10.2 million in the arts under its 2013 Grants Framework, including the Ding Yi Music Company and Siong Leng Musical Association.[34]
  • In 2011, the support for artistic activities by the Arts Council of Finland was €32.4 million of which €4,921,850 was awarded to music.[35]

Each of IFACCA’s members has a clear association with, and mandate to support the music arts in their countries. In most countries, their ministry of culture/arts council is the largest funder and marketing supporter of the music arts.

Another clear example of an “entity dedicated to the community” with members that cover hundreds of millions of music constituents with formal boundaries is A2IM, the American Association of Independent Music. A2IM has two types of members: U.S independent Label members and Associate members. A2IM membership for Labels and Associates is invoked formally through an application and if accepted would require annual membership dues.[36]

The reach of A2IM Associate[37] membership covers hundreds of millions of entities (i.e. the reach of A2IM’s total membership “geographic breadth is inclusive of all recognized territories covering regions associated with ISO-3166 codes and 193 United Nations countries with a Community of considerable size with millions of constituents – See Application Answer to Question 20a).

Organized and strictly delineated communities related to music that are A2IM members include:

  • Apple iTunes[38]– iTunes accounts for 63% of global digital music market[39] – a majority – with a registered community of 800 million registered members[40] available in 119 countries who abide to strict terms of service and boundaries[41] and have downloaded over 25 billion songs[42] from iTunes’ catalog of over 43 million songs[43] covering a global music community, regardless of genre or whether the community entities are amateur, professional, commercial or non-commercial. To add music to iTunes, all music artists must have a formal membership with iTunes via an Apple ID registration, which includes a current credit card on file.[44]
  • Pandora[45] – Pandora is the world’s largest streaming music radio with a community of over 250 million registered members.[46]
  • Spotify[47] – Spotify is the world’s largest music streaming community with over 50 million active registered members in 58 countries and over 30 million songs. The music community uploads 20,000 songs every day.[48]
  • Vevo[49] – Vevo is the world’s leading all-premium music video community and platform with over 8 billion monthly views globally.[50]
  • Youtube[51] – Youtube is the world’s largest music video streaming community with millions of music creators — amateur, professional, commercial or non-commercial — and over 1 billion registered members covering all regions globally. 6 billion hours of video is watched every month on Youtube,[52] of which 38.4% is music-related.[53]
  • Reverbnation[54] – Reverbnation[55] is one of the world’s largest music community and a leading music distributor with over 3.87 million musicians, venues labels and industry professionals covering every country globally. The Reverbnation community grows by over 50,000 artists, bands, labels and industry professionals monthly.
  • BMG[56] – BMG is focused on the management of music publishing and recording rights. BMG has an international presence and represents over 2.5 million music rights globally.[57]

A2IM also includes members that are associated with global government agencies which exclusively represent substantial music economies and music members, such as France (BureauExport[58]), China (China Audio Video Association[59]) and Germany (Initiative Musik).[60] A2IM also has Affiliate[61] associations within the global music community. These include Affiliates such as MusicFirst,[62] the Copyright Alliance,[63] the Worldwide Independent Network (WIN)[64] and Merlin.[65]

A2IM also represents a recognized Music Coalition representing the interests of the Global Independent Music Community.[66] The A2IM Coalition includes Merlin, a global rights agency for the independent label sector, representing over 20,000 labels from 39 countries, Worldwide Independent Network (representing label creators in over 20 countries), Association of Independent Music (representing largest and most respected labels in the world), and IMPALA (Independent Music Companies Association on behalf of over 4,000 independent music companies and national associations across Europe, representing 99% of music actors in Europe which are micro, small and medium sized enterprises.

Cumulatively, A2IM’s Label and Associate Membership, A2IM’s Affiliates and the A2IM’s Global Independent Music Community Coalition, covers a majority of the global music community. Its cumulative membership is in the hundreds of millions of entities with formal boundaries belonging to strictly organized and delineated communities related to music as per the Community Definition and Size (See Application answer to Question 20a).

Another global Music Community Coalition led by the RIAA “on behalf of over 15 national and international trade associations” also expressed its support for .MUSIC to be under a “community” application model, including encouraging statements in support of DotMusic’s policies that stated that the coalition “was encouraged to see” that DotMusic “included several measures to deter and address copyright infringement within that TLD.” The “coalition members represent the people that write, sing, record, manufacture, distribute and/or license over 80% of the world’s music” [67] – a majority of global music.[68]

Collectively, the DotMusic application received support from the largest coalition of music community member organizations ever assembled to support a cause. Such unparalleled global Music Community support represents an overwhelming majority of the global Music Community. Cumulatively, DotMusic possesses documented support[69] from institutions/organizations representing a majority of the Community addressed. Music — as commonly-known by the general public and experienced today — would not be possible without these supporting, non-negligible and relevant organizations that have endorsed DotMusic’s application.

 

Community Establishment Summary

In conclusion, there is substantive evidence that DotMusic’s application entirely fulfills the criteria for Community Establishment and Community Endorsement from the majority of the global Music Community as defined.

 

Community Nexus

According to the Applicant Guidebook (“AGB”), to receive the maximum score for Nexus, the applied-for string — “music” — must match the name of the community or be a well-known short-form or abbreviation of the community name.

The Nexus of the “Music Community” entirely matches the applied-for “music” string because it represents the entire global Music Community as commonly-known and perceived by the general public. This definition allows for all constituents with a requisite awareness of the Community defined to register a .MUSIC domain without any conflicts of interests, over-reaching or discrimination. The definition of the Community requires that members have an active, non-tangential relationship with the applied-for string and the requisite awareness of the music community they identify with as part of the registration process. It is clear that the general public will directly associate and equate the string with the Community as defined by DotMusic. There is no possibility of overreaching beyond the definition or allowing unrelated non-music entities to be included as part of the Community (See Community Establishment).

Community members may register a .MUSIC by either:

1) Identifying that they belong to a Music Community Member Organization (“MCMO”); or

2) Identifying the community they belong to, which is consistent with the definition of the Community: “the strictly delineated and organized logical alliance of communities of similar nature related to music.”

All Community members are aware of and recognize their inclusion in the defined Community by identifying which clearly defined community they belong to and have an active participation in. The nexus of the applied-for string ensures inclusion of the entire global community that the string represents while excluding unrelated-entities not associated with the string. This way there is a clear match and alignment between the “music” sting and the Community defined.

While the exact size of the global Music Community as defined is unknown (there is no empirical evidence providing an exact, finite number because amateur entities are also included in the Community’s definition), it is in the considerable millions as explicitly stated in the DotMusic Application. DotMusic’s definition of the Community and mutually-inclusive Registration Policies ensure that eligible members are only music-related and associated with the string. This is because the string identifies all constituents involved in music. Music-only participation optimizes the relevancy of .MUSIC domains to the string and entirely matches the nexus between the string and Community defined. According to DotMusic, the Community definition, eligibility criteria and content and use requirements ensure that peripheral industries and entities not related to music are excluded so that the string and the defined Community matches and aligns in a consistent manner consistent with DotMusic’s community-based purpose i.e. only entities with music-related activities are able to register .MUSIC domains.

Membership aligns with the nexus of the Community and the string, which is explicitly relevant to music. The string as defined in the application demonstrates uniqueness because it has no other significant meaning beyond identifying the community described in the application. According to DotMusic’s application, any tangential or implicit association with the nexus of the Community and the string is not regarded as a delineated membership since it would be considered unclear, dispersed or unbound. Such unclear, dispersed or unbound tangential relationships with the defined “music” Community and applied-for “music” string would not constitute a qualifying Community membership and would be ineligible for registration.

The inclusion of every music constituent type is paramount to the purpose of the string. Every type of music constituent critically contributes to the function and operation of the music sector within a regulated framework given the symbiotic overlapping nature of the Community as defined and structured. Music would not function as it does today without the participation of all music constituent types which cumulatively match the string with the Community definition.

In conclusion, there is substantive factual evidence that DotMusic entirely fulfills the criteria for Nexus.

 

FAQ

Is the string the name of an organization related to the Community as defined by Application?

Yes. The string is also the name of our organization which will be administrating the string with support of a strictly delineated and organized logical alliance of communities of relevance related to music and the string. Our organization also has international trademarks in .MUSIC used to promote our Mission Statement and Purpose to offer the string to formal members of the global, strictly delineated and organized logical alliance of communities related to music as defined in Application.

Does the string match the name of the community or does it over-reach substantially indicating a wider geographical or thematic remit than the defined Community has?

According to the CPE Guidelines:

“Match” is of a higher standard than “Identify” and means “corresponds to” or “is equal to.”

(AGB CPE Final Guidelines, P.7)

The name of the Community is the established name by which the Community is commonly known by others. It does not over-reach beyond the Community as defined since it is the identification/name of the Community commonly-known by others. The Community defined in the Application (i.e. a strictly delineated, organized and logical alliance of communities of similar nature relating to music) comprises of formal global members corresponding to an overwhelming majority all music produced, distributed, promoted and consumed. Such activity and geographic breadth is implied by the string and corresponds to the Community as described in Application.

The name of Community defined matches the name of string since it parallels global music constituents — with a clear and natural association with the “music” Community and “music” string — corresponding to an overwhelming majority of all music produced, distributed, promoted and consumed. As such, the applied-for string (“music”) does not overreach substantially since it does not identify a wider geographical or related thematic remit than the Community defined and substantially represented in the Application consistent with the Application’s Mission Statement, community responses and website:

“The Music Community’s geographic breadth is inclusive of all recognized territories covering regions associated with ISO-3166 codes and 193 United Nations countries”

(Application, Question 20a)

“ACCOUNTABILITY MECHANISMS

DotMusic will be accountable to the Community by serving them without conflicts of interest and:

  • Creating and managing a trusted safe online haven for music consumption
  • Establishing a safe home on the Internet for Community members to differentiate themselves regardless of locale, segment or size
  • Enforcing registration policies that enhance and preserve the integrity of the Community
  • Following a neutral multi-stakeholder governance of fair representation of all global music constituents
  • Soliciting Community advice through the Advisory Committee

The rotating, global Advisory Committee will represent all Community stakeholder groups per the NAICS codes list, such as musicians, songwriters, composers, industry professionals, collection agencies, associations, unions, businesses, education, arts councils⁄export offices⁄government agencies, managers, promoters and agents. The Committee will operate under Bylaws central to the .MUSIC Mission, Core Values, and commitment to serve the Community and public interest”

(Application, Question 20b)

“The .MUSIC mission⁄purpose is:

  • Creating a trusted, safe online haven for music consumption
  • Establishing a safe home on the Internet for Music Community members regardless of locale or size
  • Protecting intellectual property and fighting piracy
  • Supporting musiciansʹ welfare, rights & fair compensation
  • Promoting music and the arts, cultural diversity and music education
  • Following a multi-stakeholder approach of fair representation of all types of global music constituents, including a rotating regional advisory board working in the best interests of the Music Community

The Music Community encompasses global reaching commercial and non-commercial stakeholders, and amateur stakeholders.”

(Application, Question 20c)

According to the Application:

“The .MUSIC string relates to the Community by:

  • Completely representing the entire Community. It relates to all music-related constituents using an all-inclusive, multi-stakeholder model
  • Directly communicating that the content is music- related and representing the Community in a positive and beneficial manner consistent with the .MUSIC Purpose and Use policy
  • Incorporating enhanced policies and safeguards matching Community needs
  • Branding music-related constituents⁄entities on the Internet through a unique music-identifying suffix
  • Serving the Community by implementing supporting services that are built and recommended by Community stakeholders and brought to .MUSIC through its multi-stakeholder Advisory Committee
  • Creating a source of creativity, cultural identity, recreation and employment through a music-themed TLD

The .MUSIC affiliation with the Music Community, including interconnected functional activities, relate to the same groups identified by the Cultural Ministers’ Council’s “Statistical Framework for the Music Sector” scoping study (H. Hoegh-Guldberg and R. Letts, Statistical Framework for the Music Sector, 2005 http://www.culturaldata.gov.au/sites/www.culturaldata.gov.au/files/A_Statistical_Framework_for_the_Music_Sector.pdf ):

  • Musicians including composers & songwriters
  • The recording industry including record companies, producers, manufacturers, distributors of physical⁄digital products, studios and self-produced recordings
  • Audiences at all public performances and venue operators

The Community is not subject to merely commercial / financial variables. The music Community is driven primarily by technology and the socio-cultural environment that influence music-related media cultures and consumer behavior, including the Community itself. The socio-cultural environment drives the TLD, including the cultural diversity that provides space within the Community for many genres / participants, general socioeconomic and demographic factors and their impact on diverse local environments, and the support that the Community gives to new creators / performers. The string and Community share a particular cultural ambience: a sensitivity and preference for certain cultural expressions. The ambience is diverse and influential: music preferences of different sections of the society vary, ranging from metal to classical; Socio-economic distributions and demographic patterns, such as age.

.MUSIC will take these factors that relate to cultural-identity into consideration and add value to the Community through the Premium Channels sorted to address NAICS classifications, genre (e.g www.Reggae.music), style, mood, language and other culturally-significant music attributes to catalyze innovation, music identification and to bolster:

The cultural relationship between .MUSIC and the Community is based on the creation of a mutually beneficial ecosystem that is driven by value generation and supports value chains that make a difference that truly matters to:

  • Creators, performers, bands, ensembles & orchestras
  • Live performances
  • Recording
  • Airplay
  • Distribution
  • Others (e.g film, video, advertising)

.MUSIC relates to the Community by representing all constituents involved in music creation, production and distribution, including government culture agencies and arts councils and other complementor organizations involved in support activities that are aligned with the .MUSIC mission.

.MUSIC strategic activities that relate to the Community focus on:

  • Creativity, skill and talent
  • Wealth and job creation through the generation, protection and exploitation of intellectual property
  • Creating music-related intangible inputs that add economic and social value
  • Connecting music-related content in a meaningful and organized manner that will benefit both the Community and Internet users.

These strategic activities are consistent with the creative industries strategy that was defined, refined and introduced by the Blair U.K government through the Creative Industries Task Force started in 1997 (U.K Department for Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS 2001), Creative Industries Mapping Study – www.culture.gov.uk/global/publications/archive_2001/ci_mapping_doc_2001.htm).

Michael Chanan (Short History of Recording and its Effects on Music, 1995) and Peter Martland (Business History of the Gramophone Company Ltd (1887-1918), 1992) identify factors shared by the Community:

  • Music offers the opportunity of enhancing Community earnings
  • Music can spread the fame of members of the Community widely, as far afield as the Community’s distribution systems permit
  • Fame can be further exploited using global transport systems for touring
  • .Music, by virtue of its permanence, can create a form of immortality for Community members, which prior to the invention of sound technology had been denied to them

The Community and the .MUSIC string share a core value system of artistic expression with diverse, niche subcultures and socio-economic interactions between music creators, their value chain, distribution channel, and ultimately engaging fans as well as other music constituents subscribing to common ideals.

The Community genre dynamics are akin to those found in other culturally-driven Communities identifying cultural identity such as those relating to nationality, language, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion. Just like languages such as English, music theory follows an organized set of rules relating to composition and performance.”

(Application, Question 20d)

Does the string have any other significant meaning (to the public in general) beyond identifying the community described in the application?

According to the CPE Guidelines:

“Significant meaning” relates to the public in general, with consideration of the Community language context added

(AGB, Final CPE Guidelines, P.9)

“Uniqueness” is only about the meaning of the string

(AGB, Final CPE Guidelines, P.10)

The string does not have any other significant meaning beyond identifying the Community described in the application. The general public will immediately think of the Community described in the Application when thinking of the string and will not associate it with any other communities, entities, or acronyms with the same name as the Community described in the Application. As such, the string has no other significant meaning in the common English language beyond identifying the Community as described in the Application.

The size and delineation of the Community described in the Application is consistent with the string, including the geographic reach and activity implied by the string.

Uniqueness

Does the string have any other significant meaning (to the public in general) beyond identifying the community described in the application?

According to the CPE Guidelines:

“Significant meaning” relates to the public in general, with consideration of the Community language context added

(AGB, Final CPE Guidelines, P.9)

“Uniqueness” is only about the meaning of the string

(AGB, Final CPE Guidelines, P.10)

The string does not have any other significant meaning beyond identifying the Community described in the application. The general public will immediately think of the Community described in the Application when thinking of the string and will not associate it with any other communities, entities, or acronyms with the same name as the Community described in the Application. As such, the string has no other significant meaning in the common English language beyond identifying the Community as described in the Application.

The size and delineation of the Community described in the Application is consistent with the string, including the geographic reach and activity implied by the string.

 

References:

[1] https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/bm/briefing-materials-2-05feb14-en.pdf, Pg.3

[2] http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cohesion

[3] http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/cohesion

[4] Wikipedia is ranked 6th among the ten most popular websites(Alexa, Retrieved March 23, 2015 from http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org) and constitutes the Internet’s largest, most frequently updated and popular general reference work(See OECD, OECD Internet Economy Outlook 2012, OECD Publishing, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/oecd-internet-economy-outlook-2012_9789264086463-en,Pg.172) that compares favorably to the accuracy of other encyclopedias (such as the Britannica) according to a 2012 study conducted in partnership with Oxford University (See http://blog.wikimedia.org/2012/08/02/seven-years-after-nature-pilot-study-compares-wikipedia-favorably-to-other-encyclopedias-in-three-languages).

[5] Music Community. In Wikipedia. Retrieved March 23, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_community

[6] http://www.rightsdirect.com/content/rd/en/toolbar/copyright_education/International_Copyright_Basics.html

[7] http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/text.jsp?file_id=283698

[8]http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?lang=en&treaty_id=15

[9] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/62482/Berne-Convention

[10] The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) is a unique number for the identification of all notated music publications from all over the world. The ISMN is an ISO certified global standard number (ISO 10957:2009). See http://www.ismn-international.org/whatis.html and http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=43173

[11] The ISRC (International Standard Recording Code) is the international identification system for sound recordings and music video recordings. The ISRC is an ISO certified global standard number (ISO 3901:2001) and is managed by the IFPI. See http://isrc.ifpi.org, https://www.usisrc.org/about/index.html and http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=23401

[12] The ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code) is a unique, permanent and internationally recognized reference number for the identification of musical works. The ISWC has been approved by ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) as a global standard (ISO 15707:2001) and is managed by CISAC. See http://www.iswc.org/en/faq.html and http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=28780

[13] The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is the ISO certified global standard number (ISO 27729) for identifying the millions of contributors to creative works and those active in their distribution. ISNI holds public records of over 8 million identities and 490,000 organizations. See http://www.isni.org/ and http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=44292

[14] https://whois.icann.org/en/about-whois and https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/faqs-f0-2012-02-25-en

[15] https://newgtlds.icann.org/en/applicants/agb/guidebook-full-11jan12-en.pdf

[16] http://www.ifacca.org/membership/current_members/

[17] http://www.ifacca.org/strategic_partners/

[18] http://www.ifacca.org/strategic_partners/

[19] http://www.imc-cim.org/about-imc-separator/who-we-are.html

[20] U.S Copyright Office, http://www.copyright.gov/carp/m200a.html

[21] 2011 Annual Report for Cyprus Ministry of Culture, Section 1.2 “Music” (http://www.moec.gov.cy/en/annual_reports/annual_report_2011_en.pdf). Activities include Music Performances in Cyprus (1.2.1) and Abroad (1.2.2), Subsidization of Paphos Aphrodite Festival (1.2.3), Music Publications (1.2.4), Subsidization and Purchases of Digital Records (1.2.5), Promotion for Cypriot musical creativity abroad (1.2.6), Cyprus Symphony Orchestra Foundation (1.2.7), Music Information Centre (1.2.8), Developing Music Education (1.2.9), Organising of the 1st Musicological Symposium (1.2.10) and Musical Festivities for the European Volunteerism Year (1.2.11)

[22] http://www.culturalpolicies.net/down/albania_012011.pdf

[23] 2010-11 Annual Report from India Ministry of Culture, http://www.indiaculture.nic.in/hindi/pdf/Culture-AnRe-2010-2011(Eng).pdf

[24] http://my.midem.com/en/contact-us/pavilion-representatives/

[25] 2011 Annual Report from New Zealand Ministry of Culture: http://www.mch.govt.nz/files/Annual%20report%202011%202012%20pdf%20version%20(D-0448383).PDF

[26] 2011 Annual Report for the Australia Council for the Arts, http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/142351/Australia-Council-Annual-Report-201112.pdf, Page 28

[27] 2011 Annual Report for Canada Council for the Arts, http://www.canadacouncil.ca/NR/rdonlyres/6F7549BB-F4E5-4B8B-95F4-
1FF9FAFB9186/0/CanadaCouncilAnnualReport2012_COMPLETE.pdf

[28] http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1294862453819/1294862453821

[29] Department for Culture, The Importance of Music, A National Plan for Music Education,
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180973/DFE-00086-2011.pdf, Page 4, 2011

[30] 2011 Annual report for the National Endowment of the Arts, http://www.nea.gov/about/11Annual/2011-NEA-Annual-Report.pdf, Page 2

[31] NEA Strategic Plan 2012-2016, www.arts.gov/about/Budget/NEAStrategicPlan2012-2016.pdf

[32] http://www.ifacca.org/national_agency_news/2013/04/10/us-president-requests-154465000-neh-2014/

[33] 2010-2011 Annual Report for the National Arts Council South Africa, National Arts Council South Africa, http://www.nac.org.za/media/publications/AR%2010-11%20NAC.PDF/download, Page 11. Also Mmino, the South African – Norwegian Education Music Programme, solely funds music projects funding a total of 294 projects. Thirteen projects were allocated funding for a total of R1,680,600 of which R1,381,000 went towards music educational and R299,600 to exchange projects (Page 10)

[34] Singapore Arts Council, http://www.nac.gov.sg/media-centre/news-releases/news-detail?id=c2db15e2-c319-40ec-939c-d58735d0a91c

[35] http://www.taiteenkeskustoimikunta.fi/documents/10162/31704/TY+tilastotiedote+1+12+.pdf, Page 1 and Page 23

[36] http://a2im.org/about-joining/

[37] http://a2im.org/groups/tag/associate+members/

[38] http://a2im.org/groups/itunes

[39] http://appleinsider.com/articles/13/04/16/apples-itunes-rules-digital-music-market-with-63-share

[40] http://www.npr.org/blogs/therecord/2015/01/06/375173595/with-downloads-in-decline-can-itunes-adapt

[41] http://www.apple.com/legal/internet-services/itunes/ww/index.html

[42] http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2013/02/06iTunes-Store-Sets-New-Record-with-25-Billion-Songs-Sold.html

[43] https://www.apple.com/itunes/features/

[44] https://www.apple.com/itunes/working-itunes/sell-content/music-faq.html

[45] http://a2im.org/groups/pandora

[46] http://www.cnet.com/news/like-a-rolling-milestone-pandora-hits-250m-registered-users/ and http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTkxNTM1fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1, Pg.9

[47] http://a2im.org/groups/spotify

[48] https://press.spotify.com/us/information/

[49] http://a2im.org/groups/vevo/

[50] http://www.vevo.com/c/EN/US/about

[51] http://a2im.org/groups/youtube/

[52] https://www.youtube.com/yt/press/statistics.html

[53] http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2092499/internet_video_2011_2014_view_share_site_and

[54] http://a2im.org/groups/reverb-nation/

[55] http://www.reverbnation.com/about

[56] http://a2im.org/groups/bmg-rights/

[57] http://www.bmg.com/category/about-us/history/

[58] http://a2im.org/groups/french-music-export-office

[59] http://a2im.org/groups/china-audio-video-association-cava

[60] http://a2im.org/groups/initiative-musik-gmbh

[61] http://a2im.org/groups/tag/associate+members/

[62] http://musicfirstcoalition.org/coalition, The musicFIRST Coalition, with founding members A2IM, RIAA, and Recording Academy represents musicians, artists, managers, music businesses, and performance right advocates.

[63] http://www.copyrightalliance.org/members

[64] http://www.winformusic.org

[65] http://www.merlinnetwork.org

[66] https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/correspondence/bengloff-to-chehade-et-al-20aug14-en.pdf and https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/correspondence/bengloff-to-crocker-et-al-07mar15-en.pdf

[67] https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/correspondence/riaa-to-icann-05mar15-en.pdf , Pg.1

[68] https://www.icann.org/en/system/files/correspondence/riaa-to-icann-05mar15-en.pdf , Pg.3, Appendix A

[69] http://music.us/supporters